Simple Present Tense

What is the Simple Present Tense?

The simple present tense is the most common verb tense in English. It is used to talk about facts, habits, routines, emotions, thoughts, and things that are generally true.

Examples of When to use Simple Present

For habits or repeated, regular events

The bus comes at 7 am every morning.
I go to the gym every day after work.
Usually I eat pizza for dinner.

For general facts

She is from Hungary.
My watch is very expensive.
I speak 5 languages.

For generally accepted truths

It is very hot in the summer.
Iceland is a very beautiful country.

Future uses for fixed plans

Classes begin at 9 am tomorrow.
My friends arrive on Wednesday next week.
The movie starts in an hour.

Structure of Simple Present Tense

The Simple Present Tense has the simplest structures of all tenses. Take a look at where Simple Present is in the Verb Tenses Table:simple present

The subject is followed by the main verb directly:

subject

+

main verb

infinitive

+

object

I

study

business.

For example:

I live with my parents.
We have a cat called Sally.
My grandparents live on the country side.

However, the verb needs to be conjugated. In the English language, verbs only change in present tense 3rd person singular the following way:

  • Just add -s to the bare form of the verb in most cases.

see → sees | like → likes | get → gets

  • Add -es to verbs ending with a vowel other than e.

go → goes | do → does

  • Add -es to verbs ending with -s, -z, -ch, and x.

match → matches | miss → misses

Important Note: Verbs ending in -y and a consonant change to -ies.

cry → cries | fry → fries | spy → spies

However, verbs ending with a vowel and -y, keep their original form.

pray → prays

Making the Simple Present Tense negative

In the English language, negative forms of verbs are usually formed by an auxiliary verb and ‘not’. For example: She may not go out tonight. In the Simple Present Tense, the verb ‘do’ serves as an auxiliary verb to help the formation of negative and questions. ‘Do’ here has no special meaning, it serves grammatical purposes. The negative of Simple Present is formed as follows:

Subject + do + not + main verb
My sister    does   not    live     here.

Generally, a short version of negative is used in everyday language by combing ‘do’ and ‘not’ to ‘don’t’ and ‘doesn’t. Notice that the above-mentioned conjugation in 3rd person affects the auxiliary verb ‘do’ and the -s endling disappeared from the end of the verb.

Examples:

I don’t like to study for exams.
She doesn’t work here anymore.
We don’t want to go to the beach today.

Yes/No questions in Present Simple

In the English language, questions are usually formed by switching the (first) auxiliary verb and the subject. For example:

She can speak English. → Can she speak English?

However, there is no auxiliary verb in Simple Present Tense, therefore, the verb ‘do’ is used as an auxiliary verb when questions are formed. ‘Do’ is conjugated according to the above discussed way in 3rd person singular, as well, when it is used as an auxiliary verb. For example:

I like fast cars. → Do you like fast cars?

They usually have coffee and toast. → Do they usually have coffee for breakfast?

My friend doesn’t like meat. → Does he like meat?

Open-ended questions in Presen Simple

In case you want to use a question word, simply start your sentence with it followed by the correct form of ‘do’, the subject, main verb and the object. Basically, you don’t need to change the word order when you use a question word.
For example:

What kind of cars do you like?

When do they usually have breakfast?

Why don’t you like meat?

Typical adverbs of Simple Present Tense

Always, regularly, usually, rarely, sometimes, seldom, often, frequently, generally, habitually, never

Some examples:

I always lose my keys.
I regularly leave my keys in my car.
Usually my keys are in my pocket.
I rarely take my keys out of my pocket during the day.
Sometimes I leave my keys in my car.
I seldom lose anything.
How often do you lose your keys?
I frequently leave my keys at the office.
Generally, I am very organized.
I never lose anything.

Overview of Perfect Progressive Tenses

What is the perfect progressive aspect

The perfect progressive aspect combines the perfect and progressive aspects. The progressive aspect allows the speaker to express an action that is unfinished or in progress. The perfect aspect refers to an an unfinished action that started in the past and is still happening in the present. Combining the two, the perfect progressive aspect expresses actions that started in the past, are still happening in the present and the focus is on the continuity of the action. For example, if you want to say that you started dating your boyfriend a long time ago and you’re still seeing him, that’s a perfect opportunity to use perfect progressive:

I’ve been dating my boyfriend for a long time. focus is on the fact that they are still together

The same logic is true in past and future tenses. Past perfect usually expresses an action prior to another action. If you use Past Perfect Progressive, it will mean that something that started in the distant past was still happening when the other event happened. For example,

We had been dating for a long time when we go married. → focus is on the fact that dating started earlier and was still going on when they got married

Undisputedly, Future Perfect Progressive is not the most common tense, but it is not very complicated once you understand the logic behind. If you want to say that an action will start earlier but will still be going on when another event happens, that’s Future Perfect Progressive’s time to shine! Let’s look at an example.

I will have been dating him for 10 years when I’ll finally walk down the aisle. → focus is on the continuity of dating in the future at a given moment which is the wedding in this example

General structure of Perfect Progressive Tenses

The structure of Perfect Progressive Tenses combines the auxiliary verbs of both perfect and progressive tenses. The auxiliary verb ‘to have’ expresses perfection which is followed by ‘been’, the third form of ‘to be’, and the progressive participle of the main verb.

S + conjugated form of ‘to have’ + been + Progressive Participle of Main Verb + O

The auxiliary verb ‘to have’ needs to be modified according to which tense we need: present, past or future. Note that you only need to change ‘to have’; ‘been’ and the -ing form of the action verb always stay the same.

Take a look at the highlighted area to see the correct form of perfect progressive verbs in each tense:

For a detailed explanation and usage, check out the individual page of each Perfect Progressive Tense here:
Present Perfect Progressive Tense
Past Perfect Progressive Tense
Future Perfect Progressive Tense

Verbs that are usually not used in Progressive Tenses
(Non-continuous Verbs)

Some verbs that express states and not actions or processes cannot be used in Progressive Tenses. The easiest way to decide if you can use a verb in progressive form is to ask yourself if you can see somebody doing it. If you cannot see someone doing it, stick to Simple Tenses. The verbs usually express something abstract such as emotions, opinion or possession.

  • Senses / Perception: to feel, to hear, to see, to smell, to taste
  • Opinions / beliefs: to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to feel (=to think), to find (=to consider), to suppose, to think*
    *‘To think’ cannot be used in a progressive tense if it expresses opinion. However, if it expresses the action of someone thinking about something without any result, it can be used in Progressive Tenses.
  • Mental states: to forget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to notice, to recognize, to remember, to understand
  • Emotions: to envy, to fear, to dislike, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to mind, to prefer, to regret, to want, to wish
  • Measurement: to contain, to cost, to hold, to measure, to weigh
  • Others: to look (=to resemble), to seem, to be (in most cases), to have (=to own)

Exceptions
Some verbs have a different meaning in Progressive and Simple Tenses. Make sure to note these when forming sentences or translating them.

  • This massage feels nice. → perception of the massage’s quality
  • Franz is feeling sick from the salad. → his health is currently affected by the salad
  • My neighbor has 20 cats. → expressing ownership
  • I’m having a great time with you. → being entertained, feeling good
  • You can’t see the London Eye from here. → perception
  • I’m seeing my mom later during the week. → planning on meeting

 

Overview of Perfect Tenses

What is the perfect aspect

The perfect aspect focuses on the completion of an action. You need to use the perfect aspect if the action is / was / will be completed by a specific time. There is usually a very concrete consequence of the action. The action happened in the past, but the result of the action affects the present or the given point in time. This specific point in time is generally determined by a time expression, adverb or a clause (by the time I turn 21). It can also express an action that started in the past, but it is still happening.

Starbucks has served the best coffee for as long as I can remember.

This sentence indicates that Starbucks started serving the best coffee in the past and it still does in the present. Also, note the clause used to express time.

In past and future tenses, the perfect aspect is used to express different timelines of events. Using the perfect aspect, you can indicate that an action happened prior to another action even if both events happened in the past. The same is true for future tenses. Using the perfect aspect, the verb can indicate that an action will happen before another one in the future.

We had been married for 10 years when he finally decided to divorce me. → being married here happened prior to the decision to divorce
She will have finished her studies by 2020. → she will finish her studies first in the future and then 2020 will come

General structure of Perfect Tenses

S + conjugated form of ‘to have’ + Past Participle of the Main Verb + O

The auxiliary verb expressing a previous event is ‘to have’. ‘To have’ is always followed by the past participle of the main verb. Note that many verbs have irregular past participle forms. You can find a list of the most frequently used irregular verbs here. Make sure to conjugate ‘to have’ to agree with the subject of the sentence. The perfect aspect can be used in all tenses: present, past and future. Put the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ in the correct form of the present, past and future tenses to form a whole expression. For example,

I have been to Bali many times.

Note that there are many verbs that have irregular second and third forms. Make sure to learn the most common ones from our list!

How to use perfect tenses

As already mentioned above, perfect tenses are frequently used with different time expression. This time expression can be an adverb or a clause. When you use a clause, it is important to make sure that the tense agrees with the timeline of the events. The event that happened in the more distant past must be in Past Perfect and the event that happened closer to our present needs to be in Simple Past. For example,

We had been friends for years when he finally admitted that he loved me.

The same logic works in future tenses. The event prior to another event needs to be put in a perfect tense. For example,

The plane will have landed by 7 am.

Take a look at the following table to see the correct form of perfect verbs in each tense:

For/since – typical prepositions of Perfect Tenses

Perfect as well as Perfect Progressive Tenses use the prepositions ‘for’ and ‘since’ very often. It is very important to note that a time adverb using for or since in the sentance can change the meaning completely. Let’s take a look at this sentance first:
I have lived in Panama.
Without an adverb it means that I used to live in Panama in the past but I don’t live there anymore. However, look at what happens when we use an adverb:
I have lived in Panama since last summer.
Since last summer refers to the starting point, meaning that I started living in Panama last summer and I still live in Panama.

Let’s look at an example using ‘for’:

My mom has worked as a nurse.
This sentance means that my mom was a nurse once but today she might have another job.
My mom has worked as a nurse for 2 years.
This means that my mom started working as a nurse 2 years ago and she still works as a nurse today.

For a detailed explanation and usage, check out the individual page of each Simple Tense here:
Present Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Future Perfect Tense

 

Overview of Progressive Tenses

What is the progressive aspect

The progressive aspect allows the speaker to express an action that is unfinished or in progress. They generally refer to an action in a given moment, not regularity. The aim of the speaker is to refer to an action that is ongoing at a given moment. It can also be used to describe an action withing a given time frame.

For example:
She is playing with her phone during the break.
The professor was explaining the solution when the bell rang.
I was walking home when it started raining.

How to use the progressive aspect

If you have decided to use progressive aspect, the next step is to decide which tense to put the verb into. The progressive aspect can be used in all three tenses: present, past and future. In each tense, you must use the auxiliary verb of Progressive Tenses in the correct tense.

General structure of Progressive Tenses

S + conjugated form of ‘to be’ + Progressive Participle of Main Verb + O

Progressive Tenses use ‘to be’ as an auxiliary verb that must be followed by the progressive participle of the main verb. Remember that ‘to be’ needs to agree with the subject at all times. Note that ‘to be’ is always followed by the -progressive participle of the main verb in progressive tenses to express continuity. You may see ‘to be’ followed by the past participle of the verb which is used in Passive Voice that is not a tense.

Take a look at the highlighted area to see the correct form of progressive verbs in each tense:

progressive

For a detailed explanation and usage, check out the individual page of each Progressive Tense here:
Present Progressive
Past Progressive
Future Progressive

Verbs that are usually not used in Progressive Tenses
(Non-continuous Verbs)

Some verbs that express states and not actions or processes cannot be used in Progressive Tenses. The easiest way to decide if you can use a verb in progressive form is to ask yourself if you can see somebody doing it. If you cannot see someone doing it, stick to Simple Tenses. The verbs usually express something abstract such as emotions, opinion or possession.

  • Senses / Perception: to feel, to hear, to see, to smell, to taste
  • Opinions / beliefs: to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to feel (=to think), to find (=to consider), to suppose, to think*
    *‘To think’ cannot be used in a progressive tense if it expresses opinion. However, if it expresses the action of someone thinking about something without any result, it can be used in Progressive Tenses.
  • Mental states: to forget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to notice, to recognize, to remember, to understand
  • Emotions: to envy, to fear, to dislike, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to mind, to prefer, to regret, to want, to wish
  • Measurement: to contain, to cost, to hold, to measure, to weigh
  • Others: to look (=to resemble), to seem, to be (in most cases), to have (=to own)

Exceptions
Some verbs have a different meaning in Progressive and Simple Tenses. Make sure to note these when forming sentences or translating them.

  • This massage feels nice. → perception of the massage’s quality
  • Franz is feeling sick from the salad. → his health is currently affected by the salad
  • My neighbor has 20 cats. → expressing ownership
  • I’m having a great time with you. → being entertained, feeling good
  • You can’t see the London Eye from here. → perception
  • I’m seeing my mom later during the week. → planning on meeting

Overview of Simple Tenses

What is the Simple Aspect?

Simple tenses are used to express actions that are repeated, factual, normal, or always true.

In simple present tense, it often refers to a habitual, regular action or anything that is in occurrence but is not necessarily happening right now. These are usually timeless statements. It is used to express facts. The focus is on the occurrence, not the process or if the action is complete. For example,

Starbucks serves the best coffee in town.

This sentence clearly indicates that you can find the best coffee at Starbucks, but they might not be serving it right now. (They may be closed.)

Other examples:

She teaches English to elementary school kids.
The paper arrives at 7 am every day.
You need two tablespoon of sugar for this recipe.

Take a look at the Simple Tenses in the Verb Tenses Chart:

Simple Verb Tenses
The 12 English Verb Tenses

Verbs Usually Used in Simple Tenses (Non-continuous Verbs)

Some verbs that express states and not actions or processes are generally used in Simple Tenses. These can be called stative verbs or non-continuous verbs. The easiest way to identify such verbs is to examine if you can see someone performing the action. If you cannot see someone doing it, you should usually use Simple Tenses. The verbs usually express something abstract such as emotions, opinion or possession.

Senses / Perception: to feel, to hear, to see, to smell, to taste

Opinions / beliefs: to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to feel (=to think), to find (=to consider), to suppose, to think*
* ‘To think’ cannot be used in a progressive tense if it expresses opinion. However, if it expresses the action of someone thinking about something without any result, it can be used in Progressive Tenses.

Mental states: to forget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to notice, to recognize, to remember, to understand

Emotions: to envy, to fear, to dislike, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to mind, to prefer, to regret, to want, to wish

Measurement: to contain, to cost, to hold, to measure, to weigh

Others: to look (=to resemble), to seem, to be (in most cases), to have (=to own)

Exceptions

Some verbs have a different meaning in Progressive and Simple Tenses. Make sure to note these when forming sentences or translating them.

This massage feels nice. → perception of the massage’s quality

Franz is feeling sick from the salad. → his health is currently affected by the salad

My neighbor has 20 cats. → expressing ownership

I’m having a great time with you. → being entertained, feeling good

You can’t see the London Eye from here. → perception

I’m seeing my mom later during the week. → planning on meeting

How to Use the Simple Aspect

Once you have decided to use the simple aspect, verb formation is very easy. The simple aspect can be used in all three tenses: Simple Present, Simple Past and Simple Future. There is no auxiliary verb needed for affirmative sentences in simple present and simple past; we simply use the first form of the verb in the correct tense.

General Structure of Simple Tenses

subject

+

main verb

+

object / adverbs

I

 

live

 

in Bali.

Questions in Simple Tenses

To form questions or negative phrases, the auxiliary verb ‘to do’ is used in the correct form in present and past tenses. For example,

Do you know where my keys are? / Did you know where my keys are?
I don’t know. / I didn’t know.


For a detailed explanation and usage, check out the individual page of each Simple Tense here:

Simple Present Tense
Simple Past Tense
Simple Future Tense