Present Perfect Tense

When to use Present Perfect

  • Experiences
    Experiences that happened in the past, are still ‘with you’ today and may happen again in the future.
    I’ve been to Asia 3 times now.
    She’s been to Georgia many times.

    My friend broke his arm twice during basketball games. à hopefully it won’t happen again
  • Ongoing things
    Actions that started in the past and are still happening today.
    They’ve lived since I was born.
    She’s been waiting for him to pop the question forever.
  • Expectations
    Asking someone or stating if you have already done something.
    Have you picked up the kids from school?
    I haven’t done my homework, yet.
    Have you ever seen Game of Thrones?
  • Very recent past
    I’ve almost got hit by a car this morning.
    The housekeeper has just finished cleaning the bathroom.
    Have you just finished work?
  • Emphasis is on the present consequence/result of an event that happened in the past
    Someone has stolen my cell phone!
    She’s learnt to sing from the best teacher.
    I’ve broken my leg during skiing.

Structure of Present Perfect Tense

Subject + conjugated form of ‘to have’ + Past Participle of Main Verb + Object

The auxiliary verb of perfect tenses is ‘to have’ which needs to be used in the first form in present tense. Make sure to conjugate ‘to have’ to agree with the subject. ‘To have’ is always followed by the Past Participle or the main verb. Note that there are many verbs that have irregular past participle forms. Make sure to learn the most common ones from our list!

Some examples for the structure:
My dog has eaten my homework.
I’ve lost my keys on my way home.
My family has lived here since I was born.

Take a look at the following table to review how Present Perfect is formed:

Making the Simple Present Tense negative

To create the negative form of a Present Perfect verb, you need to combine ‘not’ and the auxiliary verb ‘to have’. The short form are ‘hasn’t’ and ‘haven’t’. Remember to use the short forms in informal conversations and the long forms in a written, formal context.

Subject + has / have + not + Past Participle of Main Verb

Examples:
He hasn’t been to the theater before.
I still haven’t read anything from the summer readings list.
None of my plants have survived.

Note that there are many verbs that have irregular Simple Past and Past Participle forms. Make sure to learn the most common ones from our list!

Yes/No questions in Present Perfect

Yes/no questions in Present Perfect are formed by switching the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ and the subject. For example:
Have you been to Mallorca, yet?
Has your family lived on a farm for a long time?
Haven’t you paid the electricity bills already?

Open-ended quiestions in Present Perfect

In case of open-ended questions, always start with the questions word. After the questions word, follow the usual word order for questions: auxiliary verb – subject – main verb – object -etc. The auxiliary verb in Present Perfect is have which is then followed by the subject and the past participle of the main verb. For example,

What have you eaten for breakfast today?
Who have you just talked to on the phone?
When have you started watching this new show?

Typical adverbs of Present Perfect Tense

Already, yet, since …., for … years/days/hours, this morning/afternoon/evening, today, recently, lately, just, ever, never, so far, in the last few years/minutes/weeks

Some examples:
I have already been to the doctor.
I haven’t been to the doctor, yet.
I’ve been to the doctor this morning.
I’ve had the same doctor for 10 years.
I’ve recently found a new doctor.s
I’ve just found a new doctor.
I have never met such a great doctor before!
Have you ever met a doctor who cures cancer?
I haven’t found a good knee specialist so far.
I have met many doctors from India in the last few years.

Simple Present Tense

What is the Simple Present Tense?

The simple present tense is the most common verb tense in English. It is used to talk about facts, habits, routines, emotions, thoughts, and things that are generally true.

Examples of When to use Simple Present

For habits or repeated, regular events

The bus comes at 7 am every morning.
I go to the gym every day after work.
Usually I eat pizza for dinner.

For general facts

She is from Hungary.
My watch is very expensive.
I speak 5 languages.

For generally accepted truths

It is very hot in the summer.
Iceland is a very beautiful country.

Future uses for fixed plans

Classes begin at 9 am tomorrow.
My friends arrive on Wednesday next week.
The movie starts in an hour.

Structure of Simple Present Tense

The Simple Present Tense has the simplest structures of all tenses. Take a look at where Simple Present is in the Verb Tenses Table:simple present

The subject is followed by the main verb directly:

subject

+

main verb

infinitive

+

object

I

study

business.

For example:

I live with my parents.
We have a cat called Sally.
My grandparents live on the country side.

However, the verb needs to be conjugated. In the English language, verbs only change in present tense 3rd person singular the following way:

  • Just add -s to the bare form of the verb in most cases.

see → sees | like → likes | get → gets

  • Add -es to verbs ending with a vowel other than e.

go → goes | do → does

  • Add -es to verbs ending with -s, -z, -ch, and x.

match → matches | miss → misses

Important Note: Verbs ending in -y and a consonant change to -ies.

cry → cries | fry → fries | spy → spies

However, verbs ending with a vowel and -y, keep their original form.

pray → prays

Making the Simple Present Tense negative

In the English language, negative forms of verbs are usually formed by an auxiliary verb and ‘not’. For example: She may not go out tonight. In the Simple Present Tense, the verb ‘do’ serves as an auxiliary verb to help the formation of negative and questions. ‘Do’ here has no special meaning, it serves grammatical purposes. The negative of Simple Present is formed as follows:

Subject + do + not + main verb
My sister    does   not    live     here.

Generally, a short version of negative is used in everyday language by combing ‘do’ and ‘not’ to ‘don’t’ and ‘doesn’t. Notice that the above-mentioned conjugation in 3rd person affects the auxiliary verb ‘do’ and the -s endling disappeared from the end of the verb.

Examples:

I don’t like to study for exams.
She doesn’t work here anymore.
We don’t want to go to the beach today.

Yes/No questions in Present Simple

In the English language, questions are usually formed by switching the (first) auxiliary verb and the subject. For example:

She can speak English. → Can she speak English?

However, there is no auxiliary verb in Simple Present Tense, therefore, the verb ‘do’ is used as an auxiliary verb when questions are formed. ‘Do’ is conjugated according to the above discussed way in 3rd person singular, as well, when it is used as an auxiliary verb. For example:

I like fast cars. → Do you like fast cars?

They usually have coffee and toast. → Do they usually have coffee for breakfast?

My friend doesn’t like meat. → Does he like meat?

Open-ended questions in Presen Simple

In case you want to use a question word, simply start your sentence with it followed by the correct form of ‘do’, the subject, main verb and the object. Basically, you don’t need to change the word order when you use a question word.
For example:

What kind of cars do you like?

When do they usually have breakfast?

Why don’t you like meat?

Typical adverbs of Simple Present Tense

Always, regularly, usually, rarely, sometimes, seldom, often, frequently, generally, habitually, never

Some examples:

I always lose my keys.
I regularly leave my keys in my car.
Usually my keys are in my pocket.
I rarely take my keys out of my pocket during the day.
Sometimes I leave my keys in my car.
I seldom lose anything.
How often do you lose your keys?
I frequently leave my keys at the office.
Generally, I am very organized.
I never lose anything.

Overview of Simple Tenses

What is the Simple Aspect?

Simple tenses are used to express actions that are repeated, factual, normal, or always true.

In simple present tense, it often refers to a habitual, regular action or anything that is in occurrence but is not necessarily happening right now. These are usually timeless statements. It is used to express facts. The focus is on the occurrence, not the process or if the action is complete. For example,

Starbucks serves the best coffee in town.

This sentence clearly indicates that you can find the best coffee at Starbucks, but they might not be serving it right now. (They may be closed.)

Other examples:

She teaches English to elementary school kids.
The paper arrives at 7 am every day.
You need two tablespoon of sugar for this recipe.

Take a look at the Simple Tenses in the Verb Tenses Chart:

Simple Verb Tenses
The 12 English Verb Tenses

Verbs Usually Used in Simple Tenses (Non-continuous Verbs)

Some verbs that express states and not actions or processes are generally used in Simple Tenses. These can be called stative verbs or non-continuous verbs. The easiest way to identify such verbs is to examine if you can see someone performing the action. If you cannot see someone doing it, you should usually use Simple Tenses. The verbs usually express something abstract such as emotions, opinion or possession.

Senses / Perception: to feel, to hear, to see, to smell, to taste

Opinions / beliefs: to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to feel (=to think), to find (=to consider), to suppose, to think*
* ‘To think’ cannot be used in a progressive tense if it expresses opinion. However, if it expresses the action of someone thinking about something without any result, it can be used in Progressive Tenses.

Mental states: to forget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to notice, to recognize, to remember, to understand

Emotions: to envy, to fear, to dislike, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to mind, to prefer, to regret, to want, to wish

Measurement: to contain, to cost, to hold, to measure, to weigh

Others: to look (=to resemble), to seem, to be (in most cases), to have (=to own)

Exceptions

Some verbs have a different meaning in Progressive and Simple Tenses. Make sure to note these when forming sentences or translating them.

This massage feels nice. → perception of the massage’s quality

Franz is feeling sick from the salad. → his health is currently affected by the salad

My neighbor has 20 cats. → expressing ownership

I’m having a great time with you. → being entertained, feeling good

You can’t see the London Eye from here. → perception

I’m seeing my mom later during the week. → planning on meeting

How to Use the Simple Aspect

Once you have decided to use the simple aspect, verb formation is very easy. The simple aspect can be used in all three tenses: Simple Present, Simple Past and Simple Future. There is no auxiliary verb needed for affirmative sentences in simple present and simple past; we simply use the first form of the verb in the correct tense.

General Structure of Simple Tenses

subject

+

main verb

+

object / adverbs

I

 

live

 

in Bali.

Questions in Simple Tenses

To form questions or negative phrases, the auxiliary verb ‘to do’ is used in the correct form in present and past tenses. For example,

Do you know where my keys are? / Did you know where my keys are?
I don’t know. / I didn’t know.


For a detailed explanation and usage, check out the individual page of each Simple Tense here:

Simple Present Tense
Simple Past Tense
Simple Future Tense

Overview of English Verb Tenses

Introduction

Learning verb tenses is always the tricky part of learning a language. Especially, when a language has 12 of them. It might sound scary at first but once you understand the logic behind why there are so many in the English language, you’ll be able to use them with confidence. In this post, I’ll give you a general overview on tenses that you can use as guidence before you dive into each tense one by one. Take a look at the following chart with all the tenses:

Verb Tenses Chart
12 English Verb Tenses

*S refers to subject as the performer of the action
E.g. If we examine the following sentence: ‘Mary makes a coffee.’ → Mary is the subject.
*O refers to the object on which the action is performed
E.g. In the above-mentioned sentence the coffee is the object.

Verb Tenses

In the English language, tenses are categorized according to two characteristics: tense and aspect as you can see it in the table above. Understanding tenses is more intuitive as there are past, present and future tenses, depending where the action takes place in time compared to our present.

Verb Aspect

The aspect is a bit more complicated. We differentiate three aspects: simple, progressive and perfect. Each tense has a simple, a progressive, a perfect progressive and a perfect version, adding up to 12 tenses. However, it is enough to understand the logic behind the aspects and you will know when to use them. Each aspect follows the same structure in all tenses, therefore, you will only need to learn the logic behind the structure of each aspect and you will be able to put it in past, present of future forms.

Don’t confuse tenses with clauses

In the table above, you can find all tenses in each aspect. Note that each of these tenses can be used in different clauses such as conditional and passive voice so do not confuse the two. I encourage you to check out the overview pages of each aspect before jumping into the tenses so that you will have a general understanding of the structure. Always use a verb tenses chart for guidance.

Useful abbreviations in verb structures

Most verb tenses in the English language consist of an auxuliary verb (helping verb) and a main verb, meaning that there are auxiliary verbs assisting the action verb to express the right time and aspect. At the beginning of each page, you will find a clear guideline how to form the structure in that specific tense. I will be using the following abbreviations for different verb forms:

  • Bare infinitive: Bare infinitive is the infinitive form of the  You form the first form of the verb by dropping the ‘to’ from the infinitive form.
    For example: to make → make
    to play → play
  • Simple Past: The second form of the verb is the past form or -ed form. Note that there are many irregular verbs in the English language. You can find an extensive list here.
  • Past Participle: The third form of the verb is the Past Participle. It is formed by adding -ed to the end of the verb. However, the irregular verbs have irregular Past Participle forms, as well, that you can learn along with the second forms. The third form usually follows the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ in Perfect Tenses.
  • Progressive Participle: The -ing form of the verb is created by adding -ing to the end of the verb. There are some irregularities in spelling that you can find here. The -ing form is generally used in Progressive Tenses and it is follows the auxiliary verb ‘to be’.

Always keep in mind

There are some general rules in English structures that can help you get the right form:

  • ‘Have’ as an auxiliary verb is always followed by the perfect participle of the verb.
    For example: I have been dreaming about a chocolate cake for so long.
  • ‘To be’ in progressive tenses is always followed by the progressive participe of the verb. If it is followed by the perfect participle, it refers to Passive Voice which is not a verb tense.
    For example: Bob was lying to me the whole time. → progressive
    I was being lied to the whole time. → Passive Voice
  • When you got the correct structure of the chosen aspect right, it is always the first auxiliary verb that needs to be put in the chosen tense.
    For example: ‘to be going to the movies’ →  She was going to the movies.
  • The first auxiliary verb of the tense must always agree with the subject. The form of all other auxiliary or action verbs will be determined by the auxiliary verb standing in front of them.
    For example: She has been knitting this sweater for months. → Here, the form of ‘to have’ must agree with she or third person singular.