Present Perfect Progressive Tense

When to use Present Perfect Progressive

  • Temporary habits or situations
    I’ve been dating this girl from school lately.
    My brother has been reading a lot of comics recently.
  • Ongoing things
    Actions that started in the past and are still happening today.
    They’ve been living since I was born.
    She’s been waiting for him to pop the question forever.
  • Actions in the very recent past with results
    It’s been raining, so I got soaking wet.
    Bob has been working out, so he’s very hungry.

Structure of Present Perfect Progressive Tense

Subject + conjugated form of ‘to have’ + been + Progressive Participle of Main Verb + Object

Present Perfect Progressive combines the perfect and the progressive aspect. To express the perfect aspect, we need the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ and to express progression, we need the auxiliary verb ‘to be’. The auxiliary verb of perfect tenses is ‘to have’ which needs to be used in present tense. Make sure to conjugate ‘to have’ to agree with the subject. ‘To have’ is always followed by the Past Participle of the main verb. Therefore, we need to use the past participle of ‘to be’ which is ‘been’. ‘Been’ is followed by the progressive participle (-ing form) of the actual action verb as in case of all progressive tenses.

Some examples for the structure:
My dog has been acting weird for the last couple of days.
I’ve been feeling sick from rice lately.
My mom has been working all afternoon.

Take a look at the following table to review how Present Perfect Progressive is formed:

Making the Present Perfect Progressive Tense negative

To create the negative form of a Present Perfect verb, you need to combine ‘not’ and the auxiliary verb ‘to have’. The short form are ‘hasn’t’ and ‘haven’t’. Remember to use the short forms in informal conversations and the long forms in a written, formal context.

Subject + has / have + not + been + Progresisve Participle

Examples:
He hasn’t been doing his homework.
I haven’t been working on this project with the rest of the team.
They haven’t been talking to each other lately.

Yes/no questions in Present Perfect Progressive

Questions in Present Perfect are formed by switching the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ and the subject. For example:
Have you been working out?
Haven’t you been working on the same project?
Have you been dating anyone lately?

Open-ended questions in Present Perfect Progressive

In case of open-ended questions, always start with the questions word. After the questions word, follow the usual word order for questions: auxiliary verb – subject – main verb – object -etc. The auxiliary verb here is have which follows the questions word.

How long have you been seeing her?
Who have you been dating recently?
What have you been doing all day?

Typical adverbs of Present Perfect Progressive Tense

The typical adverbs of the Present Perfect Progressive Tense are mostly the same with the typical adverbs of the Present Perfect Tense. However, the focus is always on the continuity of the action at a given moment. These adverbs are:

Already, yet, since …., for … years/days/hours, this morning/afternoon/evening, today, recently, lately, just, ever, never, so far, in the last few years/minutes/weeks

Some examples:
She’s been working to the same company for years.
I’ve been feeling so much better lately.
It has been raining all day.
The goalkeeper has been performing better than expected so far.
Haven’t you been actively looking for a new job since that incident?

!! Remember that some verbs cannot be used in progressive tenses. To review these verbs, click here.

Present Perfect Tense

When to use Present Perfect

  • Experiences
    Experiences that happened in the past, are still ‘with you’ today and may happen again in the future.
    I’ve been to Asia 3 times now.
    She’s been to Georgia many times.

    My friend broke his arm twice during basketball games. à hopefully it won’t happen again
  • Ongoing things
    Actions that started in the past and are still happening today.
    They’ve lived since I was born.
    She’s been waiting for him to pop the question forever.
  • Expectations
    Asking someone or stating if you have already done something.
    Have you picked up the kids from school?
    I haven’t done my homework, yet.
    Have you ever seen Game of Thrones?
  • Very recent past
    I’ve almost got hit by a car this morning.
    The housekeeper has just finished cleaning the bathroom.
    Have you just finished work?
  • Emphasis is on the present consequence/result of an event that happened in the past
    Someone has stolen my cell phone!
    She’s learnt to sing from the best teacher.
    I’ve broken my leg during skiing.

Structure of Present Perfect Tense

Subject + conjugated form of ‘to have’ + Past Participle of Main Verb + Object

The auxiliary verb of perfect tenses is ‘to have’ which needs to be used in the first form in present tense. Make sure to conjugate ‘to have’ to agree with the subject. ‘To have’ is always followed by the Past Participle or the main verb. Note that there are many verbs that have irregular past participle forms. Make sure to learn the most common ones from our list!

Some examples for the structure:
My dog has eaten my homework.
I’ve lost my keys on my way home.
My family has lived here since I was born.

Take a look at the following table to review how Present Perfect is formed:

Making the Simple Present Tense negative

To create the negative form of a Present Perfect verb, you need to combine ‘not’ and the auxiliary verb ‘to have’. The short form are ‘hasn’t’ and ‘haven’t’. Remember to use the short forms in informal conversations and the long forms in a written, formal context.

Subject + has / have + not + Past Participle of Main Verb

Examples:
He hasn’t been to the theater before.
I still haven’t read anything from the summer readings list.
None of my plants have survived.

Note that there are many verbs that have irregular Simple Past and Past Participle forms. Make sure to learn the most common ones from our list!

Yes/No questions in Present Perfect

Yes/no questions in Present Perfect are formed by switching the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ and the subject. For example:
Have you been to Mallorca, yet?
Has your family lived on a farm for a long time?
Haven’t you paid the electricity bills already?

Open-ended quiestions in Present Perfect

In case of open-ended questions, always start with the questions word. After the questions word, follow the usual word order for questions: auxiliary verb – subject – main verb – object -etc. The auxiliary verb in Present Perfect is have which is then followed by the subject and the past participle of the main verb. For example,

What have you eaten for breakfast today?
Who have you just talked to on the phone?
When have you started watching this new show?

Typical adverbs of Present Perfect Tense

Already, yet, since …., for … years/days/hours, this morning/afternoon/evening, today, recently, lately, just, ever, never, so far, in the last few years/minutes/weeks

Some examples:
I have already been to the doctor.
I haven’t been to the doctor, yet.
I’ve been to the doctor this morning.
I’ve had the same doctor for 10 years.
I’ve recently found a new doctor.s
I’ve just found a new doctor.
I have never met such a great doctor before!
Have you ever met a doctor who cures cancer?
I haven’t found a good knee specialist so far.
I have met many doctors from India in the last few years.

Present Progressive Tense

When to use Present Progressive Tense

Progressive tenses generally refer to only a given moment in time, not a whole period. Whereas Simple tenses usually cover a longer period, expressing repeated events and regularity. In case of progressive tenses, the speaker doesn’t want to express regularity or general facts. The focus is on the action that takes place at that given moment.

These actions are usually unfinished and incomplete. For example, expressing that someone is in the progress of preparing for an exam is done by using the Present Progressive Tense.
She is studying for an exam.

However, when she finished all preparations, knows the material and is ready to take the exam, you will have to use the Present Perfect Tense.
She has studied for an exam.

  • Ongoing actions at a given moment
    Dad’s watching a soccer game in the living room.
    She’s dancing like crazy to this song.
  • Ongoing actions during a given period
    Are you still working out so much?
    I’m traveling in Asia till the summer.
  • For future plans
    She is arriving on Monday from Bali.
    We are joining the advanced group next semester.
  • To express annoyance of a repeated action
    My boyfriend is constantly playing with video games.
    My parents are always arguing with me.

!! Note that some verbs cannot be used in progressive tenses. To review these, check out our overview post about progressive tenses.

Review how Present Progressive compares to other tenses with the help of the following table:

present progressive

Structure of Present Progressive Tense

Subject + conjugated form of ‘to be’ + Progressive Participle of Main Verb + Object

The Present Progressive Tense uses a compound verb that consists of the conjugated form of ‘to be’ and the progressive participle of the main verb. Note that ‘to be’ is the auxiliary verb in this tense that needs to be in correct form to agree with the subject. The action verb gets an -ing ending the following way:

  • If the verb ends in an ‘e’, drop the ‘e’ and add the -ing
    E.g. live → living
    have → having
    give → giving
  • If the one-syllable verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant, double the last letter and add -ing. However, there is no need to double the last letter if the verb ends in ‘w’, ‘x’ or ‘y’ because the emphasis is not on the final consonant.
    E.g. get → getting
    step → stepping
    knit → knitting
  • If the verb ends in ‘ie’, change the ending to ‘ying’.
    E.g. lie → lying
    die → dying
  • If the verb ends in a vowel + ‘r’ and the stress in on the last vowel, the ‘r’ is usually doubled.
    E.g. refer → referring
    prefer → preferring

 

Making the Present Progressive Tense negative

In the English language, negative forms of verbs are usually formed by an auxiliary verb and ‘not’. For example: She may not go out tonight. In the Present Progressive Tense, the verb ‘to be’ serves as an auxiliary verb, therefore, ‘not’ is added to ‘to be’. The negative of Present Progressive Tense is formed as follows:

Subject + conjugated form of ‘to be’ + not + Progressive Participle of Main Verb

‘To be’ and ‘not’ can be combined in informal language to a short form the following way:
is not → isn’t
are not → aren’t

Notice that there is no short negative form of ‘I am’. The correct form is ‘I’m not’. Remember to use the short form only in an informal environment. In a formal written context, always use the full form.

Examples:
We aren’t making fun of you.
She isn’t joining us at the party.
I’m not dating anyone at the moment.

Yes/No questions in Present Progressive Tense

In the English language, questions are usually formed by switching the (first) auxiliary verb and the subject. For example:

She can speak English. → Can she speak English?

In Present Progressive Tense, the conjugated form of ‘to be’ is switched with the subject to form a question, followed by the -ing form of the verb.  For example:

I’m coming to the movies. → Are you coming to the movies?
Dad isn’t driving me to school this morning. → Isn’t dad driving you to school this morning?

Open-ended questions in Present Progressive Tense

In case of open-ended questions, always start with the questions word. After the questions word, follow the usual word order for questions: auxiliary verb – subject – main verb – object -etc. The auxiliary verb in Present Progressive is am/is/are, followed by the subject and the progressive participle (-ing form) of the action verb. For example,

Kate’s having an avocado toast for breakfast today. → What is she having for breakfast today?
Mom is cooking goulash for lunch. –> What is mom cooking for lunch? Who is cooking goulash for lunch? What is mom cooking goulash for?

Typical adverbs of Present Progressive Tense

today, at present, at the moment, still, now, right now, this morning / this evening etc., nowadays, these days

Some examples:

I’m having pizza for lunch today.
I’m craving pizza at the moment.
I’m still thinking about that pizza we had last night.
I’m going to this new pizzeria now.
I’m meeting my friends for pizza this evening.
I’m not eating much pizza these days.

Simple Present Tense

What is the Simple Present Tense?

The simple present tense is the most common verb tense in English. It is used to talk about facts, habits, routines, emotions, thoughts, and things that are generally true.

Examples of When to use Simple Present

For habits or repeated, regular events

The bus comes at 7 am every morning.
I go to the gym every day after work.
Usually I eat pizza for dinner.

For general facts

She is from Hungary.
My watch is very expensive.
I speak 5 languages.

For generally accepted truths

It is very hot in the summer.
Iceland is a very beautiful country.

Future uses for fixed plans

Classes begin at 9 am tomorrow.
My friends arrive on Wednesday next week.
The movie starts in an hour.

Structure of Simple Present Tense

The Simple Present Tense has the simplest structures of all tenses. Take a look at where Simple Present is in the Verb Tenses Table:simple present

The subject is followed by the main verb directly:

subject

+

main verb

infinitive

+

object

I

study

business.

For example:

I live with my parents.
We have a cat called Sally.
My grandparents live on the country side.

However, the verb needs to be conjugated. In the English language, verbs only change in present tense 3rd person singular the following way:

  • Just add -s to the bare form of the verb in most cases.

see → sees | like → likes | get → gets

  • Add -es to verbs ending with a vowel other than e.

go → goes | do → does

  • Add -es to verbs ending with -s, -z, -ch, and x.

match → matches | miss → misses

Important Note: Verbs ending in -y and a consonant change to -ies.

cry → cries | fry → fries | spy → spies

However, verbs ending with a vowel and -y, keep their original form.

pray → prays

Making the Simple Present Tense negative

In the English language, negative forms of verbs are usually formed by an auxiliary verb and ‘not’. For example: She may not go out tonight. In the Simple Present Tense, the verb ‘do’ serves as an auxiliary verb to help the formation of negative and questions. ‘Do’ here has no special meaning, it serves grammatical purposes. The negative of Simple Present is formed as follows:

Subject + do + not + main verb
My sister    does   not    live     here.

Generally, a short version of negative is used in everyday language by combing ‘do’ and ‘not’ to ‘don’t’ and ‘doesn’t. Notice that the above-mentioned conjugation in 3rd person affects the auxiliary verb ‘do’ and the -s endling disappeared from the end of the verb.

Examples:

I don’t like to study for exams.
She doesn’t work here anymore.
We don’t want to go to the beach today.

Yes/No questions in Present Simple

In the English language, questions are usually formed by switching the (first) auxiliary verb and the subject. For example:

She can speak English. → Can she speak English?

However, there is no auxiliary verb in Simple Present Tense, therefore, the verb ‘do’ is used as an auxiliary verb when questions are formed. ‘Do’ is conjugated according to the above discussed way in 3rd person singular, as well, when it is used as an auxiliary verb. For example:

I like fast cars. → Do you like fast cars?

They usually have coffee and toast. → Do they usually have coffee for breakfast?

My friend doesn’t like meat. → Does he like meat?

Open-ended questions in Presen Simple

In case you want to use a question word, simply start your sentence with it followed by the correct form of ‘do’, the subject, main verb and the object. Basically, you don’t need to change the word order when you use a question word.
For example:

What kind of cars do you like?

When do they usually have breakfast?

Why don’t you like meat?

Typical adverbs of Simple Present Tense

Always, regularly, usually, rarely, sometimes, seldom, often, frequently, generally, habitually, never

Some examples:

I always lose my keys.
I regularly leave my keys in my car.
Usually my keys are in my pocket.
I rarely take my keys out of my pocket during the day.
Sometimes I leave my keys in my car.
I seldom lose anything.
How often do you lose your keys?
I frequently leave my keys at the office.
Generally, I am very organized.
I never lose anything.

Overview of Simple Tenses

What is the Simple Aspect?

Simple tenses are used to express actions that are repeated, factual, normal, or always true.

In simple present tense, it often refers to a habitual, regular action or anything that is in occurrence but is not necessarily happening right now. These are usually timeless statements. It is used to express facts. The focus is on the occurrence, not the process or if the action is complete. For example,

Starbucks serves the best coffee in town.

This sentence clearly indicates that you can find the best coffee at Starbucks, but they might not be serving it right now. (They may be closed.)

Other examples:

She teaches English to elementary school kids.
The paper arrives at 7 am every day.
You need two tablespoon of sugar for this recipe.

Take a look at the Simple Tenses in the Verb Tenses Chart:

Simple Verb Tenses
The 12 English Verb Tenses

Verbs Usually Used in Simple Tenses (Non-continuous Verbs)

Some verbs that express states and not actions or processes are generally used in Simple Tenses. These can be called stative verbs or non-continuous verbs. The easiest way to identify such verbs is to examine if you can see someone performing the action. If you cannot see someone doing it, you should usually use Simple Tenses. The verbs usually express something abstract such as emotions, opinion or possession.

Senses / Perception: to feel, to hear, to see, to smell, to taste

Opinions / beliefs: to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to feel (=to think), to find (=to consider), to suppose, to think*
* ‘To think’ cannot be used in a progressive tense if it expresses opinion. However, if it expresses the action of someone thinking about something without any result, it can be used in Progressive Tenses.

Mental states: to forget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to notice, to recognize, to remember, to understand

Emotions: to envy, to fear, to dislike, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to mind, to prefer, to regret, to want, to wish

Measurement: to contain, to cost, to hold, to measure, to weigh

Others: to look (=to resemble), to seem, to be (in most cases), to have (=to own)

Exceptions

Some verbs have a different meaning in Progressive and Simple Tenses. Make sure to note these when forming sentences or translating them.

This massage feels nice. → perception of the massage’s quality

Franz is feeling sick from the salad. → his health is currently affected by the salad

My neighbor has 20 cats. → expressing ownership

I’m having a great time with you. → being entertained, feeling good

You can’t see the London Eye from here. → perception

I’m seeing my mom later during the week. → planning on meeting

How to Use the Simple Aspect

Once you have decided to use the simple aspect, verb formation is very easy. The simple aspect can be used in all three tenses: Simple Present, Simple Past and Simple Future. There is no auxiliary verb needed for affirmative sentences in simple present and simple past; we simply use the first form of the verb in the correct tense.

General Structure of Simple Tenses

subject

+

main verb

+

object / adverbs

I

 

live

 

in Bali.

Questions in Simple Tenses

To form questions or negative phrases, the auxiliary verb ‘to do’ is used in the correct form in present and past tenses. For example,

Do you know where my keys are? / Did you know where my keys are?
I don’t know. / I didn’t know.


For a detailed explanation and usage, check out the individual page of each Simple Tense here:

Simple Present Tense
Simple Past Tense
Simple Future Tense