Future Perfect Progressive Tense

When to use Future Perfect Progressive Tense

Similarly to Future Perfect, Future Perfect Progressive is used to project oneself to the future when he or she will look back to a point in time which is also in the future. However, the focus here is on the continuity of the event that we are looking back to. For example, if you have exams in June and in June, you look back to the time you spent studying, you can say:

I will have been studying for a long time by June.
She will have been training for 10 years next month.
Kate will have been dating William for 20 years this year.

The focus, here, is on the process of studying, not the result of the action.

Structure of Future Perfect Progressive Tense

Subject + will + have + been + Progressive Participle of Main Verb + Object

Future Perfect Progressive combines the perfect and the progressive aspect in the future. It is the most complicated compound verb in the English language, but once you understand how aspects and tenses form a compound verb, it becomes easy to use. Similarly to other future tenses, the auxiliary verb ‘will’ is used to express future and it must be followed by a verb in first form. Therefore, we are going to need the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ to express perfection in present form. The progression is expressed by the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ which must be in past participle form ‘been’ because it follows the auxiliary verb ‘have’. Finally, ‘been’ is followed be the progressive participle (-ing form) of the action verb as in any other progressive tenses.

Some examples for the structure:
Uncle Bob will have been working there for 10 years by May.
I will have been learning English for only a year next week.

Do you remember that some verbs cannot be used in progressive tenses? To review them, click here.

Take a look at the following table to review how Future Perfect Progressive is formed:

Making the Future Perfect Progressive Tense negative

To create the negative form of a Future Perfect Progressive verb, you need to combine ‘not’ and the auxiliary verb ‘will’. The short form is ‘won’t’. Remember to use the short forms in informal conversations and the long forms in a written, formal context.

Subject + will not / won’t + have + been + Progressive Participle of Main Verb

Examples:
I won’t have been waiting here for 5 hours till he comes back.
Unless you convince me to stay, I won’t have been living here for 20 years.
They will have been practicing long by the time you get home.

Yes/No questions in Future Perfect Progressive

In the English language, questions are generally formed by switching the first auxiliary verb and the subject in a sentence. In case of the Future Perfect Progressive Tense, the first auxiliary verb is ‘will’ that must be switched with the subject.

Will not / Won’t + subject + have + been + Progressive Participle

Some examples:
Won’t you have been living here for 10 years in June?
Will he have been practicing enough by Friday?

Open-ended questions in Future Perfect Progressive

To form open-ended questions, simply put the question word to the beginning of the sentence. The word order folowing the question word remains tha same as in case of yes/no questions. For example:

How long will you have been living here in June?
How long will she have been training for that competition by the summer?

Typical adverbs of the Future Perfect Progressive Tense

The typical adverbs of the Present Perfect Progressive Tense are mostly the same with the typical adverbs of the Present Perfect Tense. However, the focus is always on the continuity of the action at a given moment. These adverbs and time expressions are:

for … years/days/hours, in (2020), by the time …, by (June), before, after, when, if, unless, etc.

Some examples:
By the time you get home, I will have been walking the dogs for 2 hours.
She will have been playing the piano for 5 years in October.
Kiara will have been working late, so she will be tired when she gets home.

Future Perfect Tense

When to use Future Perfect

Future Perfect is used when we talk about a future action that will be in the past, looking back. Future Perfect projects us in to the distant future. If we look back to another action from the distant future, that action will be in the past. That sounds very complicated, but the examples will make it clear. If you want to say that you finish school in June and in June your classes will be finished, you can say:

I will have finished school by June.

Looking at it from the present, June and finishing school are both in the future. However, looking at it from June, finishing school will be in the past.

Other examples:

My daughter will have graduated by the time we are going away.
The team will have trained enough by the World Cup.
He will have practised enough before the test.

Structure of Future Perfect Tense

Subject + will + have+ Past Participle of Main Verb + Object

The auxiliary verb of perfect tenses is ‘to have’ which needs to be used in future form in the Future Perfect Tense. Future can be expressed by using the auxiliary verb ‘will’. Will must be followed by the present form of the verb, so the correct form will be ‘will have’. Finally, the action verb needs to be in past participle because of the auxiliary verb ‘have’.

Note that there are many verbs that have irregular second and third forms. Make sure to learn the most common ones from this list!

Some examples for the structure:
My dog will have been 2 years old by then.
The offer will have been expired by the time I get my salary.
The writer will have finished his book by the deadline.

Take a look at the following table to review how Future Perfect is formed:

Making the Future Perfect Tense negative

To create the negative form of a Future Perfect verb, you need to combine ‘not’ and the auxiliary verb ‘will’ similarly to other future tenses. The short form is ‘won’t’. Remember to use the short forms in informal conversations and the long forms in a written, formal context.

Subject + won’t / will not + have + V3rd

Examples:
The project won’t have been fully finished by the deadline.
I won’t have cooked dinner by 8 o’clock because I’m busy till 7:30 pm.

Yes/No questions in Future Perfect

As in any other tenses, questions in Future Perfect are formed by switching the auxiliary verb ‘will’ and the subject. For example:
Will you have finished your homework by the time the movie starts?
Will the baby have been born by May?
Will you have saved up some money by the summer, so we can go to Australia?

Open-ended questions in Future Perfect

To form open-ended questions, simply put the question word to the beginning of the sentence. The word order folowing the question word remains tha same as in case of yes/no questions. For example:

How will you have learnt all the material by Friday?
What will you have learnt by Friday?

Typical time expressions of Future Perfect Tense

As you might have noticed already in the examples above, expressions with ‘by….’ are very typical in the Future Perfect Tense. ‘By’ can be used as a one-word adverb or as a clause. It is not mandatory to use ‘by’ with Future Perfect but it is very common. For example,

I will have lived here for 10 years by 2020.
I will have lived here for 10 years by the time I turn 30.

Will you have completed the whole course by June?
Will you have completed the whole course by the time exams start?

You can use other adverbs, as well. Note that ‘in’ doesn’t work as a clause. For example,

I think we will have colonized Mars in 2050.
Mary will have walked the dogs before 8 pm.
A week from now we will have landed in Bali.
If I learn English, I will have learnt 10 languages.

Future Progressive Tense

When to use Future Progressive

The Future Progressive Tense refers to an action that will be in progress at a certain point in tie in the future. The focus of progressive tenses is on the continuity of the action, therefore, Future Progressive often refers to an unfinished action.

  • Projecting ongoing events to a specific point in time in the future
    The Jetsons will be joining us for dinner tonight.
    This time next week they will be sitting on the plane.
    I’ll be staying with local host families in China.
    He’ll still be working on his assignment in an hour.
  • Predictions about the future
    I’ll be missing you so much when you leave.
    You’ll be living on the streets if you don’t get a job soon.
  • Asking about plans in the future
    Will you be bringing your girlfriend to the party?
    Will she be attending the evening classes?
    Will I be driving with you to the park?

Structure of Simple Future Tense

Subject + will + be + Progressive Participle of Main Verb+ Object

The Future Progressive Tense puts the progressive aspect in a future form. As in the Simple Future Tense, future is expressed by the auxiliary verb ‘will’ that must be followed by a verb in bare infinitive. Remember that ‘will’ doesn’t need to be conjugated. To express progression, we’ll need the auxiliary verb ‘to be’ in first form which is ‘be’. Similarly to other progressive tenses, the action verb will follow ‘to be’ in progressive participle form.

I will be sleeping
You will be sleeping
He / She / It will be sleeping
We will be sleeping
You will be sleeping
They will be sleeping

Note that there’s no Future Progressive form of the verb ‘to be’:
I will be being sick. → I will be sick.

Take a look at where Future Progressive is in the Verb Tenses Table:

If you need a reminder on how to spell the -ing forms correctly, click here.

Making the Future Progressive Tense negative

As in case of Simple Future Tense, the negative form is created by combining ‘will’ and ‘not’ to ‘won’t’. The rest of the structure stays unchanged. Remember to use the short version in an informal and the long version in formal context. The negative of Future Progressive is formed as follows:

Subject + won’t / will not + be + Progressive Participle of Main Verb

Examples:
I won’t be sleeping when you come home.
She won’t be driving with us.
We won’t be reviewing any grammar during class today.

Yes/No questions in Future Progressive

In the English language, questions are usually formed by switching the (first) auxiliary verb and the subject. For example:

She can speak English. → Can she speak English?

The same logic applies in Future Progressive, as ‘will’ is also a modal verb like ‘can’ in the above-mentioned example. Just switch ‘will’ and the subject.

No, I will be watching TV. → Will you be walking the dog when I come home?
You will be helping me with the laundry. 
→ Will you be helping me with the laundry?
This song will be playing in the background during the wedding. →
Will this song be playing at the wedding?

Open-ended questions in Future Progressive

To form open-ended questions, simply put the question word to the beginning of the sentence. The word order folowing the question word remains tha same as in case of yes/no questions. For example:

What will you be doing when I come home?
What will I be doing?
What song will be playing in the background?

Typical adverbs of the Future Progressive Tense

Tomorrow / tonight etc, at (6) pm/am/o’clock, next week / year, still, on Monday / Tuesday etc.

Note that in time clauses beginning with while, when, before, after, if and unless, the correct form of the verb is in present tense.

Some examples:
I’ll be making dinner when you come home.
Will you be coming to class on Thursday?
I’ll be hanging out alone unless you join me.
What will you be doing this time next week?
Mom will be cleaning up while you finish studying.

 

Simple Future Tense

Simple Future or Going to

Future events can be expressed with either Simple Future Tense or the ‘going to’ expression. Both of them express future events and actions but there is a small difference in usage. The main difference lies in the probability of the event. For predictions, less probable events, we use Simple Future and for already planned future events, we use ‘going to’. ‘Going to’ is generally used to express future intentions or plans or it is often used if we can see the evidence of a future event. For example,

I don’t think it will rain. –> Look at those clouds! It’s going to rain very soon!
Maybe the test will be easy this time. –> The teacher says the test is going to be very difficult.

First, let’s look at Simple Future closely…

When to use Simple Future

  • For planned, arranged, regular events in the future
    The bus will come at 7 am.
    I’ll take the 4 o’clock train back to the city.
  • Making offers and promises spontaneously
    Moving is such a hassle. I’ll help you.
    I lost my pen. – I’ll lend you mine.
    Thank for paying for the bills. I’ll pay you back next week.
  • Expressing probability and predicted events
    I think I’ll be there soon.
    I’m not sure I’ll be there in time.
    I’ll probably be late.
    I wonder if she’ll be late.
    I expect she’ll be late.
    It will be sunny tomorrow.
  • Willingness / Unwillingness
    My granddaughter won’t eat anything I cook because she’s vegan.
    He’s so rude. I won’t answer him until he apologizes.
    I’ll help you with your homework.
  • Invitations
    Will you come to prom with me?
    Will you marry me?

Structure of Simple Future Tense

Subject + will + bare infinitive of the main verb + Object
Daisy         will                           dance                                 tango.

The Future Simple Tense is the simplest ways to express a planned action in the future in the English Language. The future tense is expressed by using the auxiliary verb ‘will’ which is followed by the first form of the verb. The auxiliary verb implies that the action will take place in the future. Note that there is no need to conjugate ‘will’ or the main verb following it

I will dance
You will dance
He / She / It will dance
We will dance
You will dance
They will dance

Take a look at where Simple Future is in the Verb Tenses Table:

simple future

 Simple Future Negative

As in case of any other tenses, you need to combine the auxiliary verb and ‘not’ to create the negative form. The short version of ‘will not’ is ‘won’t’. Remember to use the short version in an informal and the long version in formal context. The negative of the Simple Future is formed as follows:

Subject + won’t / will not + bare infinitive

Examples:
I won’t study for my exam.
She won’t come to the cinema with us.
We won’t go to the beach today because it’s very cloudy.

Yes/No questions in Simple Future

In the English language, questions are usually formed by switching the (first) auxiliary verb and the subject. For example:

She can speak English. → Can she speak English?

The same logic applies in Simple Future, as ‘will’ is also a modal verb like ‘can’ in the above-mentioned example. Just switch ‘will’ and the subject.

I will come to your wedding. → Will you come to my wedding?

They won’t have time for breakfast. → Will they have time for breakfast?

My cousin will travel around Asia for 6 months. → Will your cousin travel around Asia?

Open-ended questions in Simple Future

To form open-ended questions, simply put the question word to the beginning of the sentence. The word order folowing the question word remains tha same as in case of yes/no questions. For example:

Who will you come to my wedding with?

What time will they have breakfast?

Where will your cousin travel around?

Typical adverbs of Simple Future Tense

Tomorrow / tonight etc, at (6) pm/am/o’clock, in (2) hours/days/weeks, ever, never,

Note that in time clauses beginning with while, when, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if and unless, the correct form of the verb is in present tense.

Some examples:
I’ll join you for dinner if you’re not late.
We will go out for dinner when you arrive.
After you arrive, we will go out for dinner.
The plane will land tomorrow at 7 pm.
Maybe we should get take-out. Jane will make dinner tonight.

Expressing planned actions with ‘going to’

Planned actions in the future can be expressed by using the expression ‘going to’, as well. However, ‘going to’ is not a tense. The full form of the expression is ‘to be going to’ where ‘to be’ needs to be conjugated according to the subject of the sentence. The actual action verb stays in first form, following ‘going to’.

Affirmative:    Subject + conjugated form of to be + going to + bare infinitive + Object

Negative: S + I’m not / isn’t / aren’t + going to + bare infinitive

Question: Am / is / are + S + going to + bare infinitive

‘Going to’ is generally used to express a planned action in the future. If you want to say that you have already decided on doing something, use ‘going to’. For example,

I’m going to the movies later today.
He is going to run the Boston Marathon this year, so he needs to train so much.
Are you going to invite your mother-in-law for the baby shower?

‘Going to’ can refer to predictions about events that are just about to happen. In these situations, often there is a concrete evidence suggesting the event about to happen. For example,

That branch is about to break. He’s going to fall off the tree!
The company earnings dropped by 30% in the last quarter. Share prices are going to decrease dramatically.
He isn’t going to pass the final exam. It’s so hard!

Expressing future with shall

You might have seen the auxiliary verb ‘shall’ before. It can also be used to express future instead of ‘will’. But be careful because ‘shall’ can only be used with ‘we’ and ‘I’. It is frequently used in formal, contexts such as legal documents and contract. For example,

The tenant shall be responsible for the cleaning of the whole property.

However, there is another meaning of ‘shall’. It is commonly used in polite questions with a similar meaning as ‘may’. For example,

May I help you? / Shall I help you? = polite way of asking ‘Can I help you?’

Note that ‘shall’ here refers to the politeness, not the future.