The progressive aspect allows the speaker to express an action that is unfinished or in progress. They generally refer to an action in a given moment, not regularity. The aim of the speaker is to refer to an action that is ongoing at a given moment. It can also be used to describe an action withing a given time frame.
For example: She is playing with her phone during the break.
The professor was explaining the solution when the bell rang.
I was walking home when it started raining.
How to use the progressive aspect
If you have decided to use progressive aspect, the next step is to decide which tense to put the verb into. The progressive aspect can be used in all three tenses: present, past and future. In each tense, you must use the auxiliary verb of Progressive Tenses in the correct tense.
General structure of Progressive Tenses
S + conjugated form of ‘to be’ + Progressive Participle of Main Verb + O
Progressive Tenses use ‘to be’ as an auxiliary verb that must be followed by the progressive participle of the main verb. Remember that ‘to be’ needs to agree with the subject at all times. Note that ‘to be’ is always followed by the -progressive participle of the main verb in progressive tenses to express continuity. You may see ‘to be’ followed by the past participle of the verb which is used in Passive Voice that is not a tense.
Take a look at the highlighted area to see the correct form of progressive verbs in each tense:
Verbs that are usually not used in Progressive Tenses
Some verbs that express states and not actions or processes cannot be used in Progressive Tenses. The easiest way to decide if you can use a verb in progressive form is to ask yourself if you can see somebody doing it. If you cannot see someone doing it, stick to Simple Tenses. The verbs usually express something abstract such as emotions, opinion or possession.
Senses / Perception: to feel, to hear, to see, to smell, to taste
Opinions / beliefs: to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to feel (=to think), to find (=to consider), to suppose, to think*
*‘To think’ cannot be used in a progressive tense if it expresses opinion. However, if it expresses the action of someone thinking about something without any result, it can be used in Progressive Tenses.
Mental states: to forget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to notice, to recognize, to remember, to understand
Emotions: to envy, to fear, to dislike, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to mind, to prefer, to regret, to want, to wish
Measurement: to contain, to cost, to hold, to measure, to weigh
Others: to look (=to resemble), to seem, to be (in most cases), to have (=to own)
Exceptions Some verbs have a different meaning in Progressive and Simple Tenses. Make sure to note these when forming sentences or translating them.
This massage feels nice. → perception of the massage’s quality
Franz is feeling sick from the salad. → his health is currently affected by the salad
My neighbor has 20 cats. → expressing ownership
I’m having a great time with you. → being entertained, feeling good
You can’t see the London Eye from here. → perception
I’m seeing my mom later during the week. → planning on meeting
Learning verb tenses is always the tricky part of learning a language. Especially, when a language has 12 of them. It might sound scary at first but once you understand the logic behind why there are so many in the English language, you’ll be able to use them with confidence. In this post, I’ll give you a general overview on tenses that you can use as guidence before you dive into each tense one by one. Take a look at the following chart with all the tenses:
*S refers to subject as the performer of the action
E.g. If we examine the following sentence: ‘Mary makes a coffee.’ → Mary is the subject.
*O refers to the object on which the action is performed
E.g. In the above-mentioned sentence the coffee is the object.
In the English language, tenses are categorized according to two characteristics: tense and aspect as you can see it in the table above. Understanding tenses is more intuitive as there are past, present and future tenses, depending where the action takes place in time compared to our present.
The aspect is a bit more complicated. We differentiate three aspects: simple, progressive and perfect. Each tense has a simple, a progressive, a perfect progressive and a perfect version, adding up to 12 tenses. However, it is enough to understand the logic behind the aspects and you will know when to use them. Each aspect follows the same structure in all tenses, therefore, you will only need to learn the logic behind the structure of each aspect and you will be able to put it in past, present of future forms.
Don’t confuse tenses with clauses
In the table above, you can find all tenses in each aspect. Note that each of these tenses can be used in different clauses such as conditional and passive voice so do not confuse the two. I encourage you to check out the overview pages of each aspect before jumping into the tenses so that you will have a general understanding of the structure. Always use a verb tenses chart for guidance.
Useful abbreviations in verb structures
Most verb tenses in the English language consist of an auxuliary verb (helping verb) and a main verb, meaning that there are auxiliary verbs assisting the action verb to express the right time and aspect. At the beginning of each page, you will find a clear guideline how to form the structure in that specific tense. I will be using the following abbreviations for different verb forms:
Bare infinitive: Bare infinitive is the infinitive form of the You form the first form of the verb by dropping the ‘to’ from the infinitive form.
For example: to make → make
to play → play
Simple Past: The second form of the verb is the past form or -ed form. Note that there are many irregular verbs in the English language. You can find an extensive list here.
Past Participle: The third form of the verb is the Past Participle. It is formed by adding -ed to the end of the verb. However, the irregular verbs have irregular Past Participle forms, as well, that you can learn along with the second forms. The third form usually follows the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ in Perfect Tenses.
Progressive Participle: The -ing form of the verb is created by adding -ing to the end of the verb. There are some irregularities in spelling that you can find here. The -ing form is generally used in Progressive Tenses and it is follows the auxiliary verb ‘to be’.
Always keep in mind
There are some general rules in English structures that can help you get the right form:
‘Have’ as an auxiliary verb is always followed by the perfect participle of the verb.
For example: I have been dreaming about a chocolate cake for so long.
‘To be’ in progressive tenses is always followed by the progressive participe of the verb. If it is followed by the perfect participle, it refers to Passive Voice which is not a verb tense.
For example: Bob was lying to me the whole time. → progressive
I was being lied to the whole time. → Passive Voice
When you got the correct structure of the chosen aspect right, it is always the first auxiliary verb that needs to be put in the chosen tense.
For example: ‘to be going to the movies’ → She was going to the movies.
The first auxiliary verb of the tense must always agree with the subject. The form of all other auxiliary or action verbs will be determined by the auxiliary verb standing in front of them.
For example: She has been knitting this sweater for months. → Here, the form of ‘to have’ must agree with she or third person singular.